Egyptian Stock Exchanges
Together, the Cairo Stock Exchange and the Alexandria Stock Exchange, form the Egyptian Stock Exchange. Both the Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchanges are run and managed by the same board of directors, and both make use of the same system for clearing, settlement and trade. Although the exchanges were established separately, the Alexandria Stock Exchange in 1888 and the Cairo Stock Exchange in 1903, the merger to form the Egyptian Stock Exchange, has given this exchange the world ranking of 5th place. The merger of the two stock exchanges, working under the same board of trustees, led to new life being breathed into the Egyptian Stock Market in the 1990’s.
Reconstruction and new economic reforms have created an Egyptian Stock Market that is structured, has the latest technological support systems, clear and easily understood trading rules and regulations and has seen vast improvements in the systems that run the payment, clearing and settlements. These upgrades and correct management of responsibilities, has resulted in an increase of listed companies and a larger market. The systems upgrades have included information systems, to allow the Cairo and Alexandria Stock Exchanges to plan strategically and give support to its investors and brokers. Network infrastructures and telecommunications have widened the coverage and expanded the Egyptian Stock Exchange to many new terminals. The Egyptian Stock Exchange makes use of the EGX 30 Index (previously known as CASE 30 Index), which lists the 30 largest companies being trade on the exchange. The exchange has also started focusing on the new generations of stockbrokers and investors of the future, with programs and educational materials that are distributed to schools and educational facilities.
The Egyptian economy is reliant on its gas exports, tourism and oil. The agricultural sector concentrates mainly on beans, sugar beets, rice, wheat, onions, sugarcane and most importantly, cotton. Due to export demands, Egypt has started directing its agricultural efforts towards vegetables, flowers and fruits. Egypt’s largest export markets are the Middle East, the U.S., Japan and the EU. Products exported to these countries include cotton, manufactured goods, petroleum, textiles, vegetables, clothing and fruits.
Imported goods such as petroleum products, machinery, food, wood products, transport equipment, chemicals, paper products and beverages are imported mainly from Japan, the EU and the United States. The USA is one of Egypt’s biggest wheat export markets, together with soybean products and corn. Egypt’s natural resources include talc, zinc, limestone, iron ore, manganese, asbestos, natural gas, phosphates, lead and gypsum.